Qualitative detection of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and of Toxins A /B
Test Applicable to: dogs, cats, horses and pigs
Clostridioides difficile is a gram positive anaerob spore former. It causes diarrhoea in various species. Studies prove the incidence of C. difficile in animal food. Therefore, a zoonotic potential for humans (diarrhoea, colitis) must be implied. Additionally, there are suggestions of mutual transfer between dog/cat and human within a household.
The most important virulence factors for the development of C. difficile infection (CDI) are the enterotoxin A (TcdA) and cytotoxin B (TcdB).
Clostridioides difficile in Dogs & Cats:
C. difficile can be proven in faeces of healthy juvenile and adult animals as well as in animals with diarrhoea (single animals, nosocomial infections in animal hospitals and shelters). A significant correlation between C. difficile and diarrhoea could not be proven, but faeces samples of animals with diarrhoea showed significantly higher TcdA (increased secretion of liquid into the intestinal lumen) and/or TcdB (lethal damage of the intestinal wall) detection as with healthy animals.
Clostridioides difficile in Horses:
Both in single animals and with diarrhoea outbreaks in herds CDI (TcdA & TcdB) occur, especially in foals, partly associated with C. perfringens, then mostly with fatality within 3 days. Clinical indications are colic, partly without/before diarrhoea onset and massive antibiotic associated colitis.
Clostridioides difficile in Pigs:
In 1–7 days old piglets, CDI is one of the most important diarrhoea diseases (mortality up to 16%). The prevalence decreases with increasing age. The faecal-oral colonisation with C. difficile happens in endemic areas at 100% within 48h, lactogenic via the sow (ca. 25%) or aerogenic via surroundings. Clinical symptoms (yellow-watery diarrhoea, but also constipation) are not always visible. Risk factors for development of an acute CDI are age, provocation dose, but also associated toxins and the administration of antibiotics. Retarded growth, lower weaning weight and severe economic losses are the consequences.
Diagnosis of an acute CDI can be difficult due to the endemic nature of C. difficile. With a two-step diagnostic of GDH (Glutamate Dehydrogenase) and the Toxins A/B, the diagnosis can be highly successful & accurate. The proof of GDH is said to be very sensitive compared to culture (golden standard) and therefore can be used as so-called “exclusion test”. On the other hand, the proof of the Toxins A/B is seen as highly specific (but less sensitive) compared to culture. Therefore, the double test can be optimally used as confirmation test.
In combination with anamnesis and clinical assessment, the FASTest® C. diff 2T is suitable as on-site diagnostic test for the secure exclusion or proof of a C. difficile infection.
It is generally advisable for diarrhoea to perform other species-specific parallel tests.
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